The Encyclopedia Britannica defines an industrial revolution “as the change that transforms a people with peasant occupations and local markets into an industrial society with worldwide competitions.” In England, industrial revolution occurred between 1750 and 1850. It refers to a succession of changes which transformed England from a predominantly rural and agriculture country into a prominently urban and manufacturing nation.
Peace and stability, establishment of big towns with private capital for investment, open and liberal structure of English society, self-reliance and enterprising initiative encouraged by religious approach to life, the Farmers’ keen desire to use machinery in agricultural, rapidly growing population, introduction of steam-engine, invention of Kay’s flying shuttle for improving weaving and spinning process, Cartwright’s invention of power loom, construction of the Bridge Water Canal—are some factors that helped the industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution had a far-reaching impact in social, economic, commercial, political national and an international sphere Ramsay Muir calls it a mighty but silent upheaval. Step growth in population and its redistribution, phenomenal rise in England’s national income, emergence of a capital class, rise of factory system, mass employment of women and children in factories, widespread growth of town, simmering anger and resentment in people’s minds expansion of England’s trade on the Continent,, America and India, a strong spirit of national pride etc—were some of the visible effects of the industrial revolution.